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منتدى الاسلام والحياه العامه يرحب بكم

منتدى الاسلام والحياه العامه يرحب بكم

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أكبر عدد للأعضاء المتواجدين في هذا المنتدى في نفس الوقت كان 57 بتاريخ الخميس 23 أكتوبر 2014 - 21:41
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أفضل 10 أعضاء في هذا الشهر

الصداع ( وجع الرأس)

الأربعاء 13 فبراير 2013 - 16:00 من طرف admin

الصداع ( وجع الرأس)

العلاج بالقراءة

*ارفع اليدين كما هو الحال في الدعاء واقرأ سورة الحمد والإخلاص والمعوذتين ثم امسح يديك على جسمك ومكان الألم تشفى بإذن الله.
*******
*ضع يدك على موضع الألم وقل ثلاث مرات : (( الله ، الله ، الله …


تعاليق: 0

يات السكينة وادعية التحصين والرقي

الأربعاء 13 فبراير 2013 - 15:59 من طرف admin


آيات السكينة وادعية التحصين والرقية -
السلام عليكم ورحمة الله وبركاته


اخواتي في الله

هذه ادعية التحصين وآيات السكينة وادعية الرقية كي تستنزلوا بها الرحمات وتستدفعوا بها شر الاشرار وشر شياطين الجن والانس

بسم الله …


تعاليق: 0

تحصين شامل وبسيط

الأربعاء 13 فبراير 2013 - 15:58 من طرف admin


***أعوذبالله السميع العليم من الشيطان الرجيم.من همزه ونفخه ونفثه


****اعوذ بكلمات الله التامات من كل شيطان وهامه ومن كل عين لاامه

***أعوذ بكلمات الله التامات من شر ماخلق

****أعوذ بوجه الله الكريم وبكلمات الله التامات.الاتي …


تعاليق: 0

الحسد ( العين ) :

الأربعاء 13 فبراير 2013 - 15:57 من طرف admin



الحسد ( العين ) :


ش

بما أن الحسد هو تمني زوال نعمة الغير إذا هو
يؤثر على الشيء الذي تقع عليه العين كالإنسان ،
وما يحتويه جسده من صحة ، وعافية ، والبيت ،
وأثاثه ، والدابة ، والمزرعة ، واللباس ، والشراب
، والطعام ، والأطفال …


تعاليق: 0

هل الرقية خاصة بمرض معين ؟

الأربعاء 13 فبراير 2013 - 15:56 من طرف admin

هل الرقية خاصة بمرض معين ؟


قد يتبادر إلى الذهن أن الرقية خاصة بعلاج أمراض
العين والسحر والمس ،

وليس لها نفع أو تأثير في الشفاء من الأمراض
الأخرى كالعضوية والنفسية والقلبية !!
وهذا غير صحيح ، ومفهوم خاطئ عن الرقية يجب
أن …

تعاليق: 0

ثمة أمور نحب أن ننبهك عليها للتذكير لا للتعليم ومنها :

الأربعاء 13 فبراير 2013 - 15:55 من طرف admin


ثمة أمور نحب أن ننبهك عليها للتذكير لا للتعليم ومنها :

1 ـ الاعتماد على الله سبحانه وتعالى وتفويض الأمر إليه ،
وكثرة الدعاء والإلحاح في طلب الشفاء ،
فهذه الرقية ما هي إلا سبب أقامه الله تعالى ليظهر
لعباده أنه هو المدبر …


تعاليق: 0

المراد بالرقية

الأربعاء 13 فبراير 2013 - 15:55 من طرف admin



المراد بالرقية :

هي مجموعة من الآيات القرآنية والتعويذات
والأدعية المأثورة عن النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم
يقرؤها المسلم على نفسه ، أو ولده ، أو أهله ،
لعلاج ما أصابه من الأمراض النفسية أو ما وقع له من
شر أعين الإنس والجن ، …


تعاليق: 0

الفرق بين التحصين والرقية

الأربعاء 13 فبراير 2013 - 15:53 من طرف admin



بسم الله والحمد لله والصلاة والسلام على رسول الله
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
الفرق بين التحصين والرقية
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
اختلط مفهوم الرقيه والتحصين لدى البعض ولعلنا نوضح في هذا الموضوع مفهوم الرقيه والتحصين:
<< التحصين >>
كلمة …


تعاليق: 0

رقيه عامه بازن الله بنيه المرض

الثلاثاء 24 يوليو 2012 - 13:24 من طرف admin


1)-الفاتحة 0

2)- ( الم * ذَلِكَ الْكِتَابُ لا رَيْبَ فِيهِ هُدًى لِلْمُتَّقِينَ *
الَّذِينَ يُؤْمِنُونَ بِالْغَيْبِ وَيُقِيمُونَ الصَّلاةَ وَمِمَّا
رَزَقْنَاهُمْ يُنفِقُونَ * وَالَّذِينَ يُؤْمِنُونَ بِمَا أُنْزِلَ


تعاليق: 0

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EDITOR’S FOREWORD

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استعرض الموضوع السابق استعرض الموضوع التالي اذهب الى الأسفل

http://shapap.talk4her.com/ EDITOR’S FOREWORD

مُساهمة من طرف admin في الثلاثاء 26 فبراير 2013 - 10:54

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EDITOR’S FOREWORD

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This booklet by Dr. Maurice Bucaille has been in circulation for the
past nineteen years and has been a very effective tool in presenting Islam to non-Muslims
as well as introducing Muslims to aspects of the scientific miracle of the Qur’an. It
is based on a transcription of a lecture given by Dr. Bucaille in French.


In this reprint, I decided to improve its presentation by simplifying
the language and editing the text from an oral format to a pamphlet format. There were
also passing references made by the author to material in his book, [i]The Bible, the
Qur’an and Science, [/i]which needed explanation. I took the liberty of including
explanatory portions from his book where more detail was necessary. A few footnotes were
also added for clarity and a [i]hadeeth [/i]which the author mentioned was replaced due to
its inauthenticity. There were also some corrections made to the historical material on
the compilation of the Qur’an.


It is my hope that these slight improvements will make this excellent
work even more effective in presenting the final revelation of God to mankind.



Dr. Abu Ameenah Bilal Philips


Director/Islamic Information Center Dubai


U.A.E.



May, 1995

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INTRODUCTION

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On the 9th of November, 1976, an unusual lecture was given at the
French Academy of Medicine. Its title was “Physiological and Embryological data in
the Qur’an”. I presented the study based on the existence of certain statements
concerning physiology and reproduction in the Qur’an. My reason for presenting this
lecture was because it is impossible to explain how a text produced in the seventh century
could have contained ideas that have only been discovered in modern times.


For the first time, I spoke to members of a learned medical society on
subjects whose basic concepts they all knew well, but I could, just as easily, have
pointed out statements of a scientific nature contained in the Qur’an and other
subjects to specialists from other disciplines. Astronomers, zoologists, geologists and
specialists in the history of the earth would all have been struck, just as forcibly as
medical doctors, by the presence in the Qur’an of highly accurate reflections on
natural phenomena. These reflections are particularly astonishing when we consider the
history of science, and can only lead us to the conclusion that they are a challenge to
human explanation.


There is no human work in existence that contains statements as far
beyond the level of knowledge of its time as the Qur’an. Scientific opinions
comparable to those in the Qur’an are the result of modern knowledge. In the
commentaries to translations of the Qur’an that have appeared in European languages,
I have only been able to find scattered and vague references to them. Nor do commentators
writing in Arabic provide a complete study of the aspects of the Qur’an that deal
with scientific matters. This is why the idea of a comprehensive study of the problem
appealed to me.


In addition to this, a comparative study of similar data contained in
the Bible (Old Testament and Gospels) seemed desirable. Thus, a research project was
developed from the comparison of certain passages in the Holy Scriptures of each
monotheistic religion with modern scientific knowledge. The project resulted in the
publication of a book entitled, [i]The Bible, the Qur'an and Science. [/i]The first French
edition appeared in May 1976. English and Arabic editions have since been published.

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RELIGION AND SCIENCE

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There is, perhaps, no better illustration of the close links between
Islam and science than the Prophet Muhammad’s often-quoted statements:

[i]

“Seeking knowledge is compulsory on every Muslim.”


“wisdom is the lost property of the believer.”


“whoever follows a path seeking knowledge, Allah will make his path
to paradise easy.”

[/i]

These statements and many others are veritable invitations to humanity
to enrich their knowledge from all sources. It comes as no surprise, therefore, to learn
that in Islam religion and science have always been considered as twin sisters and that
today, at a time when science has taken such great strides, they still continue to be
associated. Nor is it a surprise to learn that certain scientific data are used for the
better understanding of the Qur’anic text. What is more, in a century where, for many
people, scientific truth has dealt a deathblow to religious belief, it is precisely the
discoveries of science that, in an objective examination of the Islamic scripture, have
highlighted the supernatural nature of revelation and the authenticity of the religion
which it taught.


When all is said and done, scientific knowledge seems, in spite of what
many people may say or think, to be highly conducive to reflection on the existence of
God. Once we begin to ask ourselves, in an unbiased or unprejudiced way, about the
metaphysical lessons to be derived from some of today’s knowledge, (for example our
evolving knowledge of the smallest components of matter or the questions surrounding the
origin of life within inanimate matter), we indeed discover many reasons for thinking
about God. When we think about the remarkable organization presiding over the birth and
maintenance of life, it becomes clear that the likelihood of it being the result of chance
lessens quite considerably.


As our knowledge of science in the various fields expands, certain
concepts must seem increasingly unacceptable. For example, the idea enthusiastically
expressed by the recent French winner of the Nobel prize for medicine, that living matter
was self-created from simple chemical elements due to chance circumstances. Then from this
point it is claimed that living organisms evolved, leading to the remarkably complex being
called man. To me, it would seem that the scientific advancements made in understandithe
fantastic complexity of higher beings provides stronger arguments in favor of the opposite
theory: that the existence of an extraordinarily methodical organization presiding over
the remarkable arrangement of the phenomena of life necessitates the existence of a
Creator.


In many parts of the Book, the Qur’an, encourages this kind of
general reflection but also contains infinitely more precise data which are directly
related to facts discovered by modern science. It is precisely this data which exercise a
magnetic attraction for today’s scientists.




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The Qur’an And
Science

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For many centuries, humankind was unable to study certain data
contained in the verses of the Qur’an because they did not possess sufficient
scientific means. It is only today that numerous verses of the Qur’an dealing with
natural phenomena have become comprehensible. A reading of old commentaries on the
Qur’an, however knowledgeable their authors may have been in their day, bears solemn
witness to a total inability to grasp the depth of meaning in such verses. I could even go
so far as to say that, in the 20th century, with its compartmentalization of
ever-increasing knowledge, it is still not easy for the average scientist to understand
everything he reads in the Qur’an on such subjects, without having recourse to
specialized research. This means that to understand all such verses of the Qur’an,
one is nowadays required to have an absolutely encyclopedic knowledge embracing many
scientific disciplines.


I should like to stress, that I use the word [i]science [/i]to mean
knowledge which has been soundly established. It does not include the theories which, for
a time, help to explain a phenomenon or a series of phenomena, only to be abandoned later
on in favor of other explanations. These newer explanations have become more plausible
thanks to scientific progress. I only intend to deal with comparisons between statements
in the Qur’an and scientific knowledge which are not likely to be subject to further
discussion. Wherever I introduce scientific facts which are not yet 100% established, I
will make it quite clear.


There are also some very rare examples of statements in the Qur’an
which have not, as yet, been confirmed by modern science. I shall refer to these by
pointing out that all the evidence available today leads scientists to regard them as
being highly probable. An example of this is the statement in the Qur’an that life
has an aquatic origin ( “And I created every living thing out of water”
Qur’an, 21:30 ).


These scientific considerations should not, however, make us forget
that the Qur’an remains a religious book [i]par excellence [/i]and that it cannot be
expected to have a scientific purpose [i]per se. [/i]In the Qur’an, whenever humans
are invited to reflect upon the wonders of creation and the numerous natural phenomena,
they can easily see that the obvious intention is to stress Divine Omnipotence. The fact
that, in these reflections, we can find allusions to data connected with scientific
knowledge is surely another of God’s gifts whose value must shine out in an age where
scientifically based atheism seeks to gain control of society at the expense of the belief
in God. But the Qur’an does not need unusual characteristics like this to make its
supernatural nature felt. Scientific statements such as these are only one specific aspect
of the Islamic revelation which the Bible does not share.


Throughout my research I have constantly tried to remain totally
objective. I believe I have succeeded in approaching the study of the Qur’an with the
same objectivity that a doctor has when opening a file on a patient. In other words, only
by carefully analyzing all the symptoms can one arrive at an accurate diagnosis. I must
admit that it was certainly not faith in Islam that first guided my steps, but simply a
desire to search for the truth. This is how I see it today. It was mainly the facts which,
by the time I had finished my study, led me to see the Qur’an as the
divinely-revealed text it really is.

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AUTHENTICITY OF
QUR’AN

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Before getting to the essence of the subject, there is a very important
point which must be considered: the authenticity of the Qur’anic text.


It is known that the text of the Qur’an was both recited from
memory, during the time it was revealed, by the Prophet and the believers who surrounded
him, and written down by designated scribes among his followers. This process lasted for
roughly twenty-three years during which many unofficial copies were made. An official copy
was made within one year after the Prophet’s death at the instruction of Caliph Abu
Bakr.


Here we must note a highly important point. The present text of the
Qur’an benefited in its original preparation from the advantage of having its
authenticity cross-checked by the text recited from memory as well as the unofficial
written texts. The memorized text was of paramount importance at a time when not everyone
could read and write, but everybody could memorize. Moreover, the need for a written
record was included in the text of the Qur’an itself. The first five verses of
chapter [i]al-‘Alaq, [/i]which happen to constitute the first revelation made to the
Prophet (S), express this quite clearly:




“Read: In the name of your Lord who created. Who created man from
a clinging entity. Read! Your Lord is the most Noble, Who taught by the pen. Who taught
man what he did not know.” Qur’an, 96:1-5




These are surely words in “praise of the pen as a means of human
knowledge”, to use Professor Hamidullah’s expression.


Then came the Caliphate of ‘Uthman (which lasted from the twelfth
to the twenty-fourth year following Muhammad’s death). Within the first two years of
Caliph ‘Uthman’s rule, seven official copies were reproduced from the official
text and distributed throughout a large area of the world which had already come under
Islamic rule. All unofficial copies existing at that time were destroyed and all future
copies were made from the official seven copies.


In my book, [i]The Bible, the Qur’an and Science, [/i]I have
quoted passages from the Qur’an which came from the period prior to the [i]Hijrah [/i](the
Prophet’s emigration from Makkah to Madeenah in the year 622) and which allude to the
writing of the Qur’an before the Prophet’s departure from Makkah.


There were, moreover, many witnesses to the immediate transcription of
the Qur’anic revelation.


Professor Jacques Berque has told me of the great importance he
attaches to it in comparison with the long gap separating the writing down of the
Judeo-Christian revelation from the facts and events which it relates. Let us not forget
that today we also have a number of manuscripts of the first written versions of the
Qur’an which were from a time period very close to the time of revelation.


I shall also mention another fact of great importance. We shall examine
statements in the Qur’an which today appear to merely record scientific truth, but of
which men in former times were only able to grasp the apparent meaning. In some cases,
these statements were totally incomprehensible. It is impossible to imagine that, if there
were any alterations to the texts, these obscure passages scattered throughout the text of
the Qur’an, were all able to escape human manipulation. The slightest alteration to
the text would have automatically destroyed the remarkable coherence which is
characteristic to them. Change in any text would have prevented us from establishing their
total conformity with modern knowledge. The presence of these statements spread throughout
the Qur’an looks (to the impartial observer ) like an obvious hallmark of its
authenticity.


The Qur’an is a revelation made known to humans in the course of
twenty-three years. It spanned two periods of almost equal length on either side of the [i]Hijrah.
[/i]In view of this, it was natural for reflections having a scientific aspect to be
scattered throughout the Book. In a study, such as the one we have made, we had to regroup
the verses according to subject matter, collecting them chapter by chapter.


How should they be classified? I could not find any indications in the
Qur’an suggesting any particular classification, so I decided present them according
to my own personal one.


It would seem to me, that the first subject to deal with is Creation. Here
it is possible to compare the verses referring to this topic with the general ideas
prevalent today on the formation of the Universe. Next, I divided up verses under the
following general headings: Astronomy, the Earth, the Animal and Vegetable Kingdoms,
Humans, and Human Reproduction in particular. Furthermore, I thought it useful to make a
comparison between Qur’anic and Biblical narrations on the same topics from the point
of view of modern knowledge. This has been done in the cases of Creation, the Flood and
the Exodus. The reason that these topics were chosen is that knowledge acquired today can
be used in the interpretation of the texts.

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CREATION OF THE
UNIVERSE

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From an examination of creation as described in the Qur’an, an
extremely important general concept emerges: The Qur’anic narration is quite
different from the Biblical narration. This idea contradicts the parallels which are often
wrongly drawn by Western authors to emphasize the resemblance between the two texts. To
stress only the similarities, while silently ignoring the obvious dissimilarities, is to
distort reality. There is, perhaps, a reason for this.


When talking about creation, there is a strong tendency in the West to
claim that Muhammad copied the general outlines mentioned in the Qur’an from the
Bible. Certainly it is possible to compare the six days of creation as described in the
Bible, plus an extra day for rest on God’s Sabbath, with this verse from chapter [i]al-A‘raaf.[/i]
“Your Lord is God who created the heavens and the earth in six
days.” Qur’an, 7:54




However, it must be pointed out that modern commentators stress the
interpretation of the Arabic word [i]ayyaam, [/i](one translation of which is
‘days’), as meaning ‘long periods’ or ‘ages’ rather than
periods of twenty-four hours.


What appears to be of fundamental importance to me is that, in contrast
to the narration contained in the Bible, the Qur’an does not lay down a sequence for
creation of the earth and heavens. It refers both to the heavens before the earth and the
earth before the heavens, when it talks of creation in general, as in this verse of
chapter [i]Taa Haa:[/i]
“(God) who created the earth and heavens above." Qur’an,
20:4




In fact, the notion derived from the Qur’an is one of a
parallelism in the celestial and terrestrial evolutions. There are also basic pieces of
information concerning the existence of an initial gaseous mass ( [i]dukhaan [/i]) which
are unique to the Qur’an. As well as descriptions of the elements which, although at
first were fused together ( [i]ratq [/i]), they subsequently became separated [i](fatq). [/i]These
ideas are expressed in chapters [i]F[u]uss[/u]ilat [/i]and [i]al-Anbiyaa:[/i]
“God then rose turning towards the heaven when it was
smoke” Qur’an, 41:11

“Do the disbelievers not see that the heavens and the earth were
joined together, then I split them apart?” Qur’an, 21:30




According to modern science, the separation process resulted in the
formation of multiple worlds, a concept which appears dozens of times in the Qur’an.
For example, look at the first chapter of the Qur’an, [i]al-Faatihah:[/i]( “Praise
be to God, the Lord of the Worlds.” Qur’an, 1:1 ). These Qur’anic
references are a11 in perfect agreement with modern ideas on the existence of primary
nebula (galactic dust), followed by the separation of the elements which resulted in the
formation of galaxies and then stars from which the planets were born. Reference is also
made in the Qur’an to an intermediary creation between the heavens and the earth, as
seen in chapter [i]al-Furqaan:[/i]
“God is the one who created the heavens, the earth and what is
between them...” Qur’an, 25:59




It would seem that this intermediary creation corresponds to the modern
discovery of bridges of matter which are present outside organized astronomical systems.


This brief survey of Qur’anic references to creation clearly shows
us how modern scientific data and statements in the Qur’an consistently agree on a
large number of points. In contrast, the successive phases of creation mentioned in the
Biblical text are totally unacceptable. For example, in Genesis 1:9-19 the creation of the
earth (on the 3rd day) is placed before that of the heavens (on the 4th day). It is a well
known fact that our planet came from its own star, the sun. In such circumstances, how
could anyone claim that Muhammad, the supposed author of the Qur’an, drew his
inspiration from the Bible. Such a claim would mean that, of his own accord, he corrected
the Biblical text to arrive at the correct concept concerning the formation of the
Universe. Yet the correct concept was reached by scientists many centuries after his
death.

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ASTRONOMY

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Whenever I describe to Westerners the details the Qur’an contains on
certain points of astronomy, it is common for someone to reply that there is nothing
unusual in this since the Arabs made important discoveries in the field of astronomy long
before the Europeans. But, this is a mistaken idea resulting from an ignorance of history.
In the first place, science developed in the Arab World at a considerable time after the
Qur’anic revelation had occurred. Secondly, the scientific knowledge prevalent at the
highpoint of Islamic civilization would have made it impossible for any human being to
have written statements on the heavens comparable to those in the Qur’an. The
material on this subject is so vast that I can only provide a brief outline of it here.




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The Sun and Moon.

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Whereas the Bible talks of the sun and the moon as two lights differing
only in size, the Qur’an distinguishes between them by the use of different terms:
light (noor) for the moon, and lamp [i](siraaj) [/i]for the sun.

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[size=12][color=green]"Did you see how Allah created seven
heavens, one above the other, and made in them the moon a light and the sun a lamp?" Qur’an,
78:12-13

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The moon is an inert body which reflects light, whereas the sun is a
celestial body in a state of permanent combustion producing both light and heat.

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Stars and Planets

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The word ‘star’ [i](najm) [/i]in the Qur’an ( 86:3 ) is
accompanied by the adjective [i]thaaqib [/i]which indicates that it burns and consumes
itself as it pierces through the shadows of the night. It was much later discovered that
stars are heavenly bodies producing their own light like the sun.


In the Qur’an, a different word, [i]kawkab, [/i]is used to refer
to the planets which are celestial bodies that reflect light and do not produce their own
light like the sun.



“We have adorned the lowest heaven with ornaments, the planets.”
Qur’an, 37:6

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Orbits

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Today, the laws governing the celestial systems are well known. Galaxies
are balanced by the position of stars and planets in well-defined orbits, as well as the
interplay of gravitational forces produced by their masses and the speed of their
movements. But is this not what the Qur’an describes in terms which have only become
comprehensible in modern times. In chapter [i]al-Ambiyaa [/i]we find:



“(God is) the one who created the night, the day, the sun and the
moon. Each one is traveling in an orbit with its own motion.” Qur’an,21:33


The Arabic word which expresses this movement is the verb [i]yasbahoon [/i]which
implies the idea of motion produced by a moving body, whether it is the movement of
one’s legs running on the ground, or the action of swimming in water. In the case of
a celestial body, one is forced to translate it, according to its original meaning, as
‘to travel with its own motion.’


In my book, [i]The Bible, The Qur'an and Science, [/i]I have given the
precise scientific data corresponding to the motion of celestial bodies. They are well
known for the moon, but less widely known for the sun.




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The Day and Night

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The Qur’anic description of the sequence of day and night would,
in itself, be rather commonplace were it not for the fact that it is expressed in terms
that are today highly appropriate. The Qur’an uses the verb [i]kawwara[/i] in chapter
[i]az-Zumar [/i]to describe the way the night ‘winds’ or ‘coils’
itself around the day and the day around the night.




“He coils the night upon the day and the day upon the night.”
Qur’an, 39:5




The original meaning of the verb [i]k[/i]is to coil a turban around the
head. This is a totally valid comparison; yet at the time the Qur’an was revealed,
the astronomical data necessary to make this comparison were unknown. It is not until man
landed on the moon and observed the earth spinning on its axis, that the dark half of the
globe appeared to wind itself around the light and the light half appeared to wind itself
around the dark.

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The Solar Apex

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The notion of a settled place for the sun is vividly described in chapter [i]Yaa
Seen [/i]of the Qur’an:




"The sun runs its coarse to a settled place That is the decree
of the Almighty, the All Knowing.” Qur’an, 36:38




“Settled place” is the translation of the word [i]mustaqarr [/i]which
indicates an exact appointed place and time. Modern astronomy confirms that the solar
system is indeed moving in space at a rate of 12 miles per second towards a point situated
in the constellation of Hercules ( [i]alpha lyrae [/i]) whose exact location has been
precisely calculated. Astronomers have even give it a name, the solar apex.




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Expansion of the
Universe

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Chapter [i]ath-[u]Thaa[/u]riyaat [/i]of the Qur’an also seems to
allude to one of the most imposing discoveries of modern science, the expansion of the
Universe.




“I built the heaven with power and it is I, who am expanding
it.” Qur’an,51:47




The expansion of the universe was first suggested by the general theory
of relativity and is supported by the calculations of astrophysics. The regular movement
of the galactic light towards the red section of the spectrum is explained by the
distancing of one galaxy from another. Thus, the size of the universe appears to be
progressively increasing.

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Conquest of Space

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Among the achievements of modern science is the “conquest” of
space which has resulted in mans journey to the moon. The prediction of this event surely
springs to mind when we read the chapter [i]ar-Rahmaan [/i]in the Qur’an:




“O assembly of Jinns and men, if you can penetrate the regions of
the heavens and the earth, then penetrate them! You will not penetrate them except with
authority.”

Qur’an,55:33




Authority to travel in space can only come from the Creator of the laws
which govern movement and space. The whole of this Qur’anic chapter invites humankind
to recognize God’s beneficence.

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GEOLOGY

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Let us now return to earth to discover some of the many amazing statements
contained in Qur’anic reflections about our own planet. They deal, not only with the
physical phenomena observed here on earth, but also with details concerning the living
organisms that inhabit it.


As in the case of everything we have discussed so far, we shall see that
the Qur’an also expresses concepts in the field of geology that were way ahead of
those current at the time of its revelation.


At this point, we must ask ourselves the following question: How could an
uneducated man in the middle of the desert accurately tackle so many and such varied
subjects at a time when mythology and superstition reigned supreme? How could he so
skillfully avoid every belief that was proven to be totally inaccurate many centuries
later?

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Water Cycle

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The verses dealing with the earthly systems are a case in point. I have
quoted a large number of them in my book, [i]The Bible, The Qur’an and Science, [/i]and
have paid special attention to those that deal with the water cycle in nature. This is a
topic which is well known today. Consequently, the verses in the Qur’an that refer to
the water cycle seem to express ideas that are now totally self-evident. But if we
consider the ideas prevalent at that time, they appear to be based more on myth and
philosophical speculation than on observed fact, even though useful practical knowledge on
soil irrigation was current at that period.


Let us examine, for example, the following verse in chapter [i]az-Zumar:[/i]
“Have you not seen that Allah sent rain down from the sky and
caused it to penetrate the ground and come forth as springs, then He caused crops of
different colors to grow...” Qur’an,39:21




Such notions seem quite natural to us today, but we should not forget
that, not so long ago, they were not prevalent. It was not until the sixteenth century,
with Bernard Palissy, that we gained the first coherent description of the water cycle.
Prior to this, people believed that the waters of the oceans, under the effect of winds,
were thrust towards the interior of the continents. They then returned to the oceans via
the great abyss, which, since Plato’s time was called the [i]Tartarus [/i].In the
seventeenth century, great thinkers such as Descartes still believed in this myth. Even in
the nineteenth century there were still those who believed in Aristotle’s theory that
water was condensed in cool mountain caverns and formed underground lakes that fed
springs. Today, we know that it is the infiltration of rain water into the ground that is
responsible for this. If one compares the facts of modern hydrology with the data found in
numerous verses of the Qur’an on this subject, one cannot fail to notice the
remarkable degree of agreement between the two.

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Mountains

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In geology, modern science has recently discovered the phenomenon of
folding which formed the mountain ranges. The earth’s crust is like a solid shell,
while the deeper layers are hot and fluid, and thus inhospitable to any form of life. It
has also been discovered that the stability of mountains is linked to the phenomenon of
folding. The process of mountain formation by folding drove the earth’s crust down
into the lower layers and provided foundations for the mountains.


Let us now compare modern ideas with one verse among many in the
Qur’an that deals with this subject. It is taken from chapter [i]an-Naba’:[/i]
“Have We not made the earth an expanse and the mountains
stakes?”





Qur’an, 78:6-7


Stakes ( [i]awtaad [/i]), which are driven into the ground like those
used to anchor a tent, are the deep foundations of geological folds.


Here, as in the case of all the other topics presented, the objective
observer cannot fail to notice the absence of any contradiction to modern knowledge.

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BIOLOGY

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More than anything else, I was struck by statements in the Qur’an
dealing with living things, both in the animal and vegetable kingdoms, especially with
regard to reproduction. We should really devote much more time to this subject, but, due
to the limited scope of this presentation, I can only give a few examples.


I must once again stress the fact that it is only in modern times that
scientific progress has made the hidden meaning of some Qur’anic verses
comprehensible to us. Numerous translations and commentaries on the Qur’an have been
made by learned men who had no access to modern scientific knowledge. It is for this
reason that scientists find some of their interpretations


unacceptable.


There are also other verses whose obvious meanings are easily understood,
but which conceal


scientific meanings which are startling, to say the least. This is the
case of a verse in chapter [i]al-Ambiyaa, [/i]a part of which has already been quoted:




“Do the unbelievers not realize that the heavens and the earth
were joined together,

then I clove them asunder and I made every living thing out of water. Will
they still not believe?” Qur’an, 21:30




This is a dramatic affirmation of the modern idea that the origin of
life is aquatic.




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Botany

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Progress in botany at the time of Muhammad (S) was not advanced enough
in any country for scientists to know that plants have both male and female parts.
Nevertheless, we may read the following in the chapter [i]Taa Haa:[/i]
“(God is the One who) sent down rain from the sky and with it
brought forth a variety of plants in pairs.” Qur’an, 20:53




Today we know that fruit comes from plants that have sexual
characteristics even when they come from unfertilized flowers, like bananas. In the
chapter [i]ar-Ra‘d [/i]we read the following:




“... and of all fruits (God) placed (on the earth) two
pairs.” Qur’an, 13:3



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Physiology

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In the field of physiology, there is one verse which appears extremely
significant to me. One thousand years before the discovery of the blood circulatory
system, and roughly thirteen centuries before it was determined that the internal organs
were nourished by the process of digestive , a verse in the Qur’an described the
source of the constituents of milk, in conformity with scientific facts.


To understand this verse, it must first be known that chemical
reactions occur between food and enzymes in the mouth, the stomach and the intestines
releasing nutrients in molecular form which are then absorbed into the circulatory system
through countless microscopic projections of the intestinal wall called villi. Blood in
the circulatory system then transports the nutrients to all the organs of the body, among
which are the milk-producing mammary glands.


This biological process must be basically understood, if we are to
understand a verse in the Qur’an which has for many centuries given rise to
commentaries that were totally incomprehensible.


Today it is not difficult to see why! This verse is taken from the
chapter [i]an-Nahl:[/i]
“Verily, in cattle there is a lesson for yon. I give you drink
from their insides, coming from a conjunction between the digested contents ( of the
intestines ) and the blood, milk pure and pleasant for those who drink it.” Qur’an,
16:66




The constituents of milk are secreted by the mammary glands which are
nourished by the product of food digestion brought to them by the bloodstream. The initial
event which sets the whole process in motion is the conjunction of the contents of the
intestine and blood at the level of the intestinal wall itself.


This very precise concept is the result of the discoveries made in the
chemistry and physiology of the digestive system over one thousand years after the time of
Prophet Muhammad (S).

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EMBRYOLOGY

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There are a multitude of statements in the Qur’an on the subject
of human reproduction which constitute a challenge to the embryologist seeking a human
explanation for them. It was only after the birth of the basic sciences which contributed
to our knowledge of biology and the invention of the microscope, that humans were able to
understand the depth of those Qur’anic statements. It was impossible for a human
being living in the early seventh century to have accurately expressed such ideas. There
is nothing to indicate that people in the Middle-East and Arabia knew anything more about
this subject than people living in Europe or anywhere else. Today, there are many Muslims,
possessing a thorough knowledge of the Qur’an and natural sciences, who have
recognized the amazing similarity between the verses of the Qur’an dealing with
reproduction and modern scientific knowledge.


I shall always remember the comment of an eighteen-year-old Muslim,
brought up in Saudi Arabia, commenting on a reference to human reproduction as described
in the Qur’an. He pointed to the Qur’an and said, “This book provides us
with all the essential information on the subject. When I was at school, my teachers used
the Qur’an to explain how children were born. Your books on sex-education are a bit
late on the scene!”


If I were to spend as long on all the details of reproduction contained
in the Qur’an, as the subject merits, this pamphlet would become a book. The detailed
linguistic and scientific explanations I have given in [i]The Bible, The Qur’an and
Science [/i]are sufficient for the person who does not speak Arabic nor know much about
embryology to be able to understand the meaning of such verses in the light of modern
science in more depth.


It is especially in the field of embryology that a comparison between
the beliefs present at the time of the Qur’an’s revelation and modern scientific
data, leaves us amazed at the degree of agreement between the Qur’an’s
statements and modern scientific knowledge. Not to mention the total absence of any
reference in the Qur’an to the mistaken ideas that were prevalent around the world at
the time.




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Fertilization

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Let us now isolate, from all these verses, precise ideas concerning the
complexity of the semen and the fact that an infinitely small quantity is required to
ensure fertilization. In chapter [i]al-Insaan [/i]the Qur’an states:


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“Verily, I created humankind from a small quantity of mingled
fluids.” Qur’an, 76:2

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[b]
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The Arabic word [i]nutfah [/i]has been translated as "small
quantity”. It comes from the verb meaning ‘to dribble, to trickle’ and is
used to describe what remains in the bottom of a bucket which has been emptied. The verse
correctly implies that fertilization is performed by only a very small volume of liquid.


On the other hand, mingled fluids ( [i]amshaaj [/i]) has been
understood by early commentators to refer to the mixture of male and female discharges.
Modern authors have corrected this view and note that the sperm is made up of various
components.


When the Qur’an talks of a fertilizing fluid composed of different
components, it also informs us that human progeny will be formed from something extracted
from this liquid. This is the meaning of the following verse in chapter [i]as-Sajdah:[/i]
“Then He made [ man’s ] offspring from the essence of a
despised fluid.”
Qur’an, 32:8




The Arabic word translated by the term ‘essence’ is [i]sulaalah
[/i]which means ‘something extracted, the best part of a thing’. In whatever way
it is translated, it refers to part of a whole. Under normal conditions, only one single
cell, spermatozoon, out of over 50 million ejaculated by a man during sexual intercourse
will actually penetrate the ovule.




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Implantation

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Once the egg has been fertilized in the fallopian tube, it descends to
lodge itself inside the uterus. This process is called the ‘implantation of the
egg’. Implantation is a result of the development of [i]villosities, [/i]which, like
roots in the soil, draw nourishment from the wall of the uterus and make the egg literally
cling to the womb. The process of implantation is appropriately described in several
verses by the word [i]‘alaq, [/i]which is also the title of the chapter in which one
of the verses appears:




“God fashioned humans from a clinging entity.” Qur’an,
96:2




I do not think there is any reasonable translation of the word [i]‘alaq
[/i]other than to use it in its original sense. It is a mistake to speak of a ‘blood
clot’ here, which is the term Professor Hamidullah uses in his translation. It is a
derivative meaning which is not as appropriate in this context.




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Embryo

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The evolution of the embryo inside the maternal uterus is only briefly
described, but the description is accurate, because the simple words referring to it
correspond exactly to fundamental stages in its growth. This is what we read in a verse
from the chapter [i]al-Mu’minoon:[/i]
“I fashioned the clinging entity into a chewed lump of flesh
and I fashioned the chewed flesh into bones and I clothed the bones with intact
flesh.” Qur’an, 23:14




The term ‘chewed flesh’ [i](mudghah) [/i]corresponds exactly
to the appearance of the embryo at a certain stage in its development.


It is known that the bones develop inside this mass and that they are
then covered with muscle. This is the meaning of the term ‘intact flesh’ (lahm).


The embryo passes through a stage where some parts are in proportion
and others out of proportion with what is later to become the individual. This is the
obvious meaning of a verse in the chapter [i]al-Hajj, [/i]which reads as follows:




“I fashioned (humans) a clinging entity, then into a lump of
flesh in proportion and out of proportion.” Qur’an, 22:5.




Next, we have a reference to the appearance of the senses and internal
organs in the chapter [i]as-Sajdah:[/i]
“... and (God) gave you ears, eyes and hearts.” Qur’an,
32:9




Nothing here contradicts today’s data and, furthermore, none of
the mistaken ideas of the time have crept into the Qur’an. Throughout the Middle Ages
there were a variety of beliefs about human development based on myths and speculations
which continued for several centuries after the period. The most fundamental stage in the
history of embryology came in 1651 with Harvey’s statement that “all life
initially comes from an egg”. At that time, when science had benefited greatly from
the invention of the microscope, people were still arguing about the respective roles of
the egg and spermatozoon. Buffon, the great naturalist, was one of those in favor of the
egg theory.Bonnet, on the other hand, supported the theory of ‘the ovaries of
Eve’, which stated that Eve, the mother of the human race, was-supposed to have had
inside her the seeds of all human beings packed together one inside the other.

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BIBLE, QUR’AN AND
SCIENCE

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We have now come to the last subject I would like to present in this short
pamphlet: it is the


comparison between modern knowledge and passages in the Qur’an that
are also referred to in the Bible.

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Creation

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We have already come across some of the contradictions between scripture
and science regarding the creation of the universe. When dealing with that topic, I
stressed the perfect agreement between modern knowledge and verses in the Qur’an, and
pointed out that the Biblical narration contained statements that were scientifically
unacceptable. This is hardly surprising if we are aware that the narration of the creation
contained in the Bible was the work of priests living in the sixth century BC, hence the
term ‘sacerdotal’ ( priestly ) narration is officially used to refer to it. The
narration seems to have been conceived as the theme of a sermon designed to exhort people
to observe the Sabbath. The narration was constructed with a definite end in view, and as
Father de Vaux (a former head of the Biblical School of Jerusalem) has noted, this end was
essentially legalist in character.


The Bible also contains a much shorter and older narration of Creation,
the so-called ‘Yahvist’ version, which approaches the subject from a completely
different angle. They are both taken from Genesis, the first book of the Pentateuch or
Torah. Moses is supposed to have been its author, but the text we have today has undergone
many changes.


The sacerdotal narration of Genesis is famous for its whimsical
genealogies, that go back to Adam, and which nobody takes very seriously. Nevertheless,
such Gospel authors as Matthew and Luke have reproduced them, more or less word-for-word,
in their genealogies of Jesus. Matthew goes back as far as Abraham, and Luke to Adam.
These writings are scientifically unacceptable, because they set a date for the age of the
world and the time humans appeared on Earth, which most definitely contradicts what modern
science has firmly established. The Qur’an, on the other hand, is completely free of
dates of this kind.


Earlier on, we noted how perfectly the Qur’an agrees with modern
ideas on the formation of the Universe. On the other hand, the Biblical narration of
primordial waters is hardly, nor is the creation of light on the first day before the
creation of the stars which produce this light; the existence of an evening and a morning
before the creation of the earth; the creation of the earth on the third day before that
of the sun on the fourth; the appearance of beasts of the earth on the sixth day after the
appearance of the birds of the air on the fifth day, although the former came first. All
these statements are the result of beliefs prevalent at the time this text was written and
do not have any other meaning.




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Age of the Earth

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As for the Biblical genealogies which form the basis of the Jewish
calendar and assert that today the world is 5738 years old, these are hardly admissible
either. Our solar system may well be four and a quarter billion years old, and the
appearance of human beings on earth, as we know him today, may be estimated in tens of
thousands of years, if not more. It is absolutely essential, therefore, to note that the
Qur’an does not contain any such indications as to the age of the world, and that
these are specific to the Biblical text.




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The Flood

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There is a second highly significant subject of comparison between the
Bible and the Qur’an; descriptions of the deluge. In actual fact, the Biblical
narration is a fusion of two descriptions in which events are related differently. The
Bible speaks of a universal flood and places it roughly 300 years before Abraham.


According to what we know of Abraham, this would imply a universal
cataclysm around the twenty-first or twenty-second century BC This story would be
untenable, in view of presently available historical data. How can we accept the idea
that, in the twenty-first or twenty-second century BC, all civilization was wiped off the
face of the earth by a universal cataclysm, when we know that this period corresponds, for
example, to the one preceding the Middle Kingdom in Egypt, at roughly the date of the
first Intermediary period before the eleventh dynasty? It is historically unacceptable to
maintain that, at this time, humanity was totally wiped out. None of the preceding
statements is acceptable according to modern knowledge. From this point of view, we can
measure the enormous gap separating the Bible from the Qur’an.


In contrast to the Bible, the narration contained in the Qur’an
deals with a cataclysm that is limited to Noah’s people. They were punished for their
sins, as were other ungodly peoples. The Qur’an does not fix the cataclysm in time.
There are absolutely no historical or archaeological objections to the narration in the
Qur’an.




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The Pharaoh

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A third point of comparison, which is extremely significant, is the story
of Moses, and especially the Exodus from Egypt of the Hebrews. Here I can only give a
highly compressed account of a study on this subject that appears in my book. I have noted
the points where the Biblical and Qur’anic narrations agree and disagree, and I have
found points where the two texts complement each other in a very useful way.


Among the many hypotheses, concerning the historical time-frame
occupied by the Exodus in the history of the pharaohs, I have concluded that the most
likely is the theory which makes Merneptah, Ramesses II’s successor, the pharaoh of
the Exodus. The comparison of the data contained in the Scriptures with archeological
evidence strongly supports this hypothesis. I am pleased to be able to say that the
Biblical narration contributes weighty evidence leading us to situate Moses in the history
of the pharaohs. Moses was probably born during the reign of Ramesses II. Biblical data.
are therefore of considerable historical value in the story of Moses. A medical study of
the mummy of Merneptah has yielded further useful information on the possible causes of
this pharaoh’s death. The fact that we possess the mummy of this pharaoh is one of
paramount importance. The Bible records that pharaoh was engulfed in the sea, but does not
give any details as to what subsequently became of his corpse. The Qur’an, in chapter
[i]Yoonus, [/i]notes that the body of the pharaoh would be saved from the waters:




“Today I will save your dead body so that you may be a sign for
those who come after you.” Qur’an, 10:92




A medical examination of this mummy, has, shown that the body could not
have stayed in the water for long, because it does not show signs of deterioration due to
prolonged submersion. Here again, the comparison between the narration in the Qur’an
and the data provided by modern knowledge does not give rise to the slightest objection
from a scientific point of view.


Such points of agreement are characteristic of the Qur’anic
revelation. But, are we throwing the Judeo-Christian revelation into discredit and
depriving it of all its intrinsic value by stressing the faults as seen from a scientific
point of view? I think not because the criticism is not aimed at the text as a whole, but
only at certain passages. There are parts of the Bible which have an undoubted historical
value. I have shown that in my book, [i]The Bible, The Qur’an and Science, [/i]where
I discuss passages which enable us to locate Moses in time.


The main causes which brought about such differences as arise from the
comparison between the Holy Scriptures and modern knowledge is known to modern scholars.
The Old Testament constitutes a collection of literary works produced in the course of
roughly nine centuries and which has undergone many alterations. The part played by men in
the actual composition of the texts of the Bible is quite considerable.


The Qur’anic revelation, on the other hand, has a history which is
radically different. As we have already seen, from the moment it was first commto humans,
it was learnt by heart and written down during Muhammad’s own lifetime. It is thanks
to this fact that the Qur’an does not pose any problem of authenticity.


A totally objective examination of the Qur’an, in the light of
modern knowledge, leads us to recognize the agreement between the two, as has already been
noted on repeated occasions throughout this presentation.


It makes us deem it quite unthinkable for a man of Muhammad’s time
to have been the author of such statements, on account of the state of knowledge in his
day. Such considerations are part of what gives the Qur’anic revelation its unique
place among religious and non-religious texts, and forces the impartial scientist to admit
his inability to provide an explanation based solely upon materialistic reasoning.


Such facts as I have had the pleasure of exposing to you here, appear to
represent a genuine challenge to human explanation leaving only one alternative: the
Qur’an is undoubtedly a revelation from God.


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